Large scale model predictions on the effect of GDL thermal conductivity and porosity on PEM fuel cell performance
The performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell majorly relies on properties of gas diffusion layer (GDL) which supports heat and mass transfer across the membrane electrode assembly. A novel approach is adopted in this work to analyze the activity of GDL during fuel cell operation on a large-scale model. The model with mesh size of 1.3 million computational cells for 50 cm2 active area was simulated by parallel computing technique via computer cluster. Grid independence study showed less than 5% deviation in criterion parameter as mesh size was increased to 1.8 million cells. Good approximation was achieved as model was validated with the experimental data for Pt loading of 1 mg cm-2. The results showed that GDL with higher thermal conductivity prevented PEM from drying and led to improved protonic conduction. GDL with higher porosity enhanced the reaction but resulted in low output voltage which demonstrated the effect of contact resistance. In addition, reduced porosity under the rib regions was significant which resulted in lower gas diffusion and heat and water accumulation.
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