J. Electrochem. Sci. Eng.  

Benchmarking of electrolyte mass transport in next generation lithium batteries

Jonas Lindberg, Henrik Lundgren, Göran Lindbergh, Mårten Behm

Abstract


Beyond conductivity and viscosity, little is often known about the mass transport properties of next generation lithium battery electrolytes, thus, making performance estimation uncertain when concentration gradients are present, as conductivity only describes performance in the absence of these gradients. This study experimentally measured the diffusion resistivity, originating from voltage loss due to a concentration gradient, together with the ohmic resistivity, obtained from ionic conductivity measurements, hence, evaluating electrolytes both with and without the presence of concentration gradients. Under galvanostatic conditions, the concentration gradients, of all electrolytes examined, developed quickly and the diffusion resistivity rapidly dominated the ohmic resistivity. The electrolytes investigated consisted of lithium salt in: room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL), RTIL mixed organic carbonates, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and a conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. At steady state the RTIL electrolytes displayed a diffusion resistivity ~ 20 times greater than the ohmic resistivity. The DMSO-based electrolyte showed mass transport properties similar to the conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. In conclusion, the results presented in this study show that the diffusion polarization must be considered in applications where high energy and power density are desired.


Keywords


Li-ion battery; Li-O2 battery; Room temperature ionic liquid; Diffusion resistivity; Electrolyte mass transport resistivity

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5599/jese.408

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